Yojimboâ¢ 2 Natural G-10 CPM® M4 Black Blade Exclusive. As described in the S45VN article, nitrogen also decreases the chromium carbide content while increasing the vanadium carbide content, though I’m not sure that was recognized at the time that S30V was designed. Modifications of S30V led to the development of the also popular S35VN, and the more recent S45VN. S45VN D2 440C 154CM S30V S35VN S90V s Corrosion Resistance Toughness Wear Resistance Grade CPM S45VN 11.0 ft. lbs. With this in mind, the chemical composition used in the manufacture of S35VN was rebalanced with the addition of chromium for an improvement in corrosion resistance coming up with a new product: S45VN. You can read more about what nitrogen additions do in this article on nitrogen additions as well as this article on S45VN. S30V is, in many eyes, the ultimate EDC steel. S60V, however, was essentially 440C but with 5.5% vanadium added and enough carbon to maintain similar hardness potential. Chromium and vanadium both compete to form carbides. Dick Barber, former Crucible metallurgist who was the lead developer on S30V, asked Chris Reeve (of Chris Reeve Knives) why they were using BG42 steel rather than one of the available Crucible products . The molybdenum was added so that the bearings could be operated at high temperature, but it was discovered that partially replacing Cr with Mo led to similar corrosion resistance to 440C. S60V was the first CPM steel produced by the company through the modification of common stainless grade 440C steel by increasing the composition of vanadium with a corresponding increase of carbon elements.CPM technology was used in the manufacture of homogeneous steel through the even distribution of carbides in the blade. The CPM process used enhances the production standardized, high-quality steel with superior dimensional solidity, toughness, and machinability.Comparison Between S45VN and S35VN, Composition Winkler Highland Hatchet - Curly Oak Tomahawk, Chris Reeve Large Sebenza 21 Tanto - Micarta Inlay Folding Knife, Kurt Merriken Custom 3" Phantom San Mai Damascus, Brian Tighe - Tighe Down Integral - RWL34 & Carbon Fiber Inlay, Hinderer Extreme Duty Pen Copper - EDP Tactical Pen, Tuff Writer Precision Press Flamed Titanium Tactical Pen, Download the Crudible CPM S45VN Steel Datasheet. Molybdenum additions improve “hardenability” so that slower air quenches can be used, so the 2% Mo helped in that regard. In late 2019, Crucible industries in collaboration with Niagra Speciality Metals debuted CPM S45VN. $104.95. I didn't really plan it that way, but it works out that this edge type, when combined with a relatively steep sharpening angle of 17 degrees per side gives a really tough sharpened edge. The CPM process produces very homogeneous, high quality steel characterized by superior dimensional stability, grindability and toughness compared to steels produced by conventional processes." Powder metallurgy allowed higher alloy steels and finer microstructures because of the rapid solidification process. What it is: CPM S35VN is a "Crucible Particle Metallurgy" stainless steel, an improvement over CPM S30V, and is widely regarded as a "super steel" for its properties and performance. CPM S35VN 12.0 ft. lbs. "Corrosion Resistance M390 and CPM-154 both have higher than expected toughness which is very intriguing. The S35VN or CPM S35V is a high-end martensitic stainless steel made by @Crucible, high in Carbon, Vanadium, and chromium designed to offer a great balance between toughness, hardness and corrosion resistance.Itâs used in long-wearing Specialty cutlery, Plastic Injection and Extrusion Feed Screws and Dies, â¦ Carbides refer to the hard particles present in steel that enhance the blade to retain its edge. There werenât obvious differences in the microstructure of SPY27 between 2000 and 2050°F, however. I would argue that S30V is better for every practical need. 7. Another change to S30V is that an intentional nitrogen addition was made of about 0.2%, which was made to improve corrosion resistance but also means improved hardening when heat treating. Overall, I'm pleased with it, and more importantly, my customers are satisfied. SPY27 â 2050°F. Below shows the results of CATRA experiments reported by others that I have shown in other articles. S30V continues to be the benchmark other stainless knife steels are compared to. S35VN was released in 2009 as a modification of S30V to have superior toughness and â¦ Freeman also said that I think the main advantage of S45VN is the increased corrosion resistance. Niobium carbides are also hard hence used in place of vanadium to form higher wear resistance. Custom knifemaker Jeff Freeman mentioned, that machining and cutting S45VN steel for blades, "For processing, I use the same tools (solid carbide) with the same coolant and fixturing. Yojimboâ¢ 2 Carbon Fiber CPM 20CV Exclusive. Crucible also famously developed powder metallurgy steels which started commercial-scale production in 1970. a mix) of carbon and iron that is often enriched with other elements to â¦ Will work and grind like D2 and give the hardness and toughness of CPM S30V. It was also somewhat finer than the previously available S60V and S90V. As for edge finishing, I have been going with a 100 grit, then a 220 grit, then a 400 grit at 17 degrees per side, then a buffing wheel with green chrome to finish.  Chilton’s iron age 226, no. Extreme edge retention. Along the same lines, CPM S45VN has slightly better edge retention in CATRA test results (all % numbers relative to AISA 440C steel ) when compared to S35VN steel , 143% vsâ¦ 5. Crucible's goal was to create an even tougher steel that didn't sacrifice resistance to corrosion, and they did that by using niobium carbides in place of some of S30V's vanadium â¦ However, in testing of that steel Chris Reeve Knives wanted more wear resistance to better differentiate from BG42, leading to an increase in vanadium up to the final 4%. These properties make S45VN is outstanding blade steel for high-end folding knives. In the development of S90V, the Cr was reduced relative to S60V, dropping from 17% to 14% similar to the modification of 440C to make 154CM. 5% S30V. And thanks to Dick Barber for talking to me about the development of S30V. ?? Metallurgy and Testing of Knives and Steel. Chris Reeve is famous for developing two steels directly with Crucible Industries, and boy did this partnership result in an awesome product. It's a rare occurrence that we need that level of â¦ CPM S35VN. "Why Choose S45VN for knifemaking?In its annealed condition, CPM S45VN is a lot easier to grind than CPM S90V and simpler than CPM S30V. So I think that 20CV would probably be the best choice for Spyderco to use if production costs were competitive with S30V or S45VN. Cara Cara â¦ I think this is due to the supporting material behind the edge. Exhibiting very good edge retention, corrosion resistance, and sharpenability, S30V is utilized by a variety of makers for its â¦ Freeman mentioned, Not a knock on any other CPM steels, but so far this seems "cleaner", meaning that it gives a very uniform surface appearance across a large surface area. It is a bit below steels like ZDP-189, S90V, and 20CV/M390.  Pinnow, Kenneth, William Stasko, and John Hauser. 154CM 2.5 ft. lbs. The replacement of vanadium and carbon with niobium and nitrogen produces an excellent combination of wear and corrosion resistance, edge retention, and toughness making this the ideal choice in the manufacture of knives. $329.95. The early versions of the steel were first tested by Chris Reeve Knives making that company very significant to what the final product became. Honestly, I doubt the average user will be able to tell the diff. Required fields are marked *. I feel the best way is to compare it to CPM M4 which is a steel we are all familiar with and gets compared often to Hap40/Rex 45 First testing is sharpening to a high sharpeness freehand on benchstones and comparing small differences in the edge quality and other characteristics. I've seen it in processing and in the finished product. In choosing the best pocket knife you should pay particular attention to the type of steel used in the blade. While corrosion resistance is important a knife's key role is cutting hence holding its edges is a vital feature. https://www.patreon.com/Knifesteelnerds, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). However, the Mo was not increased to compensate. $195.00 +$5.00 shipping. A cryo treatment may be added between tempers. ... Spyderco Para 3 Sprint Run-Diamond Arc Text Forest Green G-10-CPM-S45VN. Steels have varying levels of difficulty working the steel, can require specialized tools and exacting heat treatment.S45VN fits the bill for high-end knifemakers that require excellent edge retention and corrosion resistance that is relatively easy to work. CPM SPY27 is a steel produced by Crucible exclusively for Spyderco. The addition of hard carbides to the steel makes it the best option among manufacturers of stainless steel knives. $269.95. The steel was designed to offer good wear and corrosion resistance as well as increased toughness in knives. The chromium also forms some softer chromium carbides but they are dissolved at typical heat treating temperatures. It gives a nice sharp bright and mirror-polished finish on the edge. S30V and S35VN are very similar for corrosion resistance. This was also confirmed in my own corrosion resistance testing, where a higher rating below means better resistance to corrosion. Both S30V and S35VN steel are made with the same carbon and chrome content, and from various tests, both steels provide the same edge retention and corrosion â¦ So we can understand more the Steel, letâs see its chemical â¦  http://www.seamountknifeworks.com/js/web/viewer.html?file=articles/pdf/S30V_update.pdf. The new S45VN steel offers corrosion resistance like never before. I wonât say equivalent but close, CPM 154 is close to the S30V in the balance between hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and toughness, but still the S30V is better in edge retention and corrosion resistance, the second equivalent for our CPM154 would be the 154 CM(since it was developed based on it), and of course CPM â¦ 5 out of 5 stars (1) 1 product ratings - Spyderco Jerry Brouwer CPM-S30V Green G-10 (Newest CQI Version) C232GTIP. I have shown the 2050°F specimen below, along with comparisons with S30V, S35VN, and S45VN where you can see that SPY27 has somewhat less carbide than the others. CPM s90v Corrosion Resistance: Great Corrosion Resistance due to â¦ Notify me of follow-up comments by email. S30V, S35VN, and now S45VN. So even as S30V is replaced to some extent, it is often by steels that owe some of their design to the older S30V. It is also easier to machine and polish than CPM S30V. You can read more about carbide types and how elements interact to lead to different amounts in this article on carbides. Add in the machined "grooves" on the bevels, and the edge thickness can be .050" prior to sharpening.  https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/the-true-history-of-s30v-development.1015831/,  https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/chris-reeve-green-beret.384825/page-5#post-3538203. Molybdenum improves corrosion resistance, as mentioned earlier in connection with 154CM. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. The increase in Mo from 1% in S90V up to 2% in S30V provided an increase in corrosion resistance with the relatively low 14% Cr. With increased carbon content and less vanadium, S45VN holds an edge longer as compared to its predecessors. Corrosion resistance is “above average” and has been sufficient for many knives that have been released over the almost 20 years S30V has been available. Great article Larrin! Impact Energy Steel is essentially an alloy (i.e. $217.95.  Haswell, Walter T., and August Kasak. CPM S30V 10.0 ft. lbs. Below is a table summarizing the resulting properties including the amount of chromium carbide (M7C3), vanadium carbide (MC), measured toughness (higher is better) wear resistance in a crossed-cylinder wear test (higher is better), and corrosion measured in a 10% boiling acetic acid solution (lower is better): So with all of those lessons learned, it was known that a lower chromium content would allow vanadium to go further in terms of its contribution to wear resistance. This difference can be felt when whittling and cutting fibrous materials like cardboard and ropes despite the lack of change in heat treatment, the S45VN has a hardness rating of 61-62 compared to 59-60 of the S35VN. A Knifemakers Perspective S45VNSelecting a steel to use in a knife is a balance between the intended use (features required), the cost of the steel (price point), and the difficulty both to cut, grind and heat treat the steel. 4% S90V. The goal was to design a steel which was superior to BG42 in terms of toughness, edge retention, and corrosion resistance. Spyderco Jerry Brouwer CPM-S30V Green G-10 (Newest CQI Version) C232GTIP. The Cr was reduced for a different reason, however. 4% S45VN. “Powder-metallurgy steel article with high vanadium-carbide content.” U.S. Patent 4,249,945, issued February 10, 1981. Other possible uses include the manufacture of industrial machinery include: pelletizing equipment, extrusion feed screws, non-return valve components, components for food and chemical processing.Download the Crudible CPM S45VN Steel Datasheet, CPM vs Conventionally Produced Steel (Source Crucible Industries Datasheet), CPM S45VN Alloy Composition (Source Crucible Industries Datasheet), Functional Comparison of S45VN vs other Knife Steels (Source Crucible Industries Datasheet). 5. S30V is a knife steel produced by Crucible, released at the end of 2001 . And molybdenum and nitrogen additions were used to balance the corrosion resistance along with edge retention and toughness. Its composition has been altered to create more chromium carbides, while also allowing free chromium compounds in the composition. The toughness of S30V is similar to other stainless steels in its class according to my own toughness experiments, though not record-setting, as seen in our standard toughness test utilizing unnotched 1/4 size charpy specimens: However, I think the toughness of S30V could be further improved with better heat treating, if we use what we learned with heat treating S35VN, S45VN, and SPY27. this article to learn about corrosion resistance, Toughness – improved because of a small reduction in carbide content along with using powder metallurgy for finer carbides, Edge retention – increased vanadium for hard vanadium carbides led to increased wear resistance and therefore slicing edge retention, Corrosion resistance – With the vanadium addition, less chromium carbide is formed in the S30V leading to improved corrosion resistance relative to BG42 and 154CM. There are three significant things to know about S45VN steel: it has high vanadium content for very tough carbides (edge retention), it has high chromium for increased corrosion resistance, and niobium content for a cleaner grind/machinability.In late 2019, Crucible industries in collaboration with Niagra Speciality Metals debuted CPM S45VN. Vanadium carbides also tend to be smaller (read this article) so having less chromium carbide means better toughness as well. With my own CATRA experiments the relative position of S30V is approximately the same, but I will be talking about those experiments in a future article. It also has better toughness than S30V, S45VN, and Elmax. Carbides are hard particles in steel that add to wear resistance but detract from toughness. Nitrogen can increase hardness and corrosion resistance in stainless steels, read more here. Further fast-quench and cold treatment are recommended at 400°F temperatures depending on the desired levels of hardness. That conversation led to Dick, along with Ed Severson, conducting interviews with many knifemakers and knife companies about the properties they desired in a knife steel. While earlier generations of steel relied on Vanadium, replacing this element with niobium created harder particles that contribute to the wear resistance of steel. Personally, excitement over the release of S30V in 2001 was part of what led me to become a metallurgist and to eventually research and write for this website. Design of S45VN Steel â Nitrogen. Thanks to Atlas Knife & Tool and Mervin Thomson for become Knife Steel Nerds Patreon supporters! And less chromium carbide means that even though S90V has less chromium, less is tied up in carbides so that the chromium is free in the steel to improve corrosion resistance. UK Penknifeâ¢ Red G-10 CPM S30V Exclusive. The company has been producing steel with high wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and toughness by adding vanadium and niobium when creating new products. (Which is still considered an excellent blade material.) The more the carbides present the tougher and brittle the steel. S30V gained wide usage in a relatively short period of time. S45VN uses a similar chemical formula but with a rebalance of the percentage compositions of the elements. By Larry Connelley When looking at quality American-made knives, you'll notice that S35VN and S30V steel are two of the more popular steels for knife blades. With poor grindability and little stain resistance it has never been used much outside of individual custom knives. They interviewed people like Sal Glesser, Ernie Emersion, Tony Marfione, Phil Wilson, Bill Harsey, Mike Jones, Steve Ingrim, Tom Mayo, Jerry Hossom and Paul Bos . Become a patron and gain access to awesome rewards including early access to articles or a Knife Steel Nerds mug! S30V quickly became a favorite for knife manufacturers in the 2000s. S30V also has a nitrogen addition , a point not often recognized since the nitrogen is not listed in the â¦ The need to develop tough martensitic stainless steel saw the introduction of CPM S30V steel, which Chris Reeves was directly involved in creating. S60V is not a bad steel and has relatively high edge retention, but its grindability and toughness are also relatively poor and its corrosion resistance is only mediocre. Advantages: Toughness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance. Your vote has been cast. It also has increased Carbon and a some Nitrogen added to allow for higher hardness than CPM S35VN. CPM-20CV. While various manufacturers have already put out the S45VN knife in the markets, it is bound to be more resistant to corrosion and wear as well have tough on edge retention. Your email address will not be published. https://knifesteelnerds.com/2018/11/19/steel-edge-retention/, But read a few of the edge retention articles… there is a huge context. "CPM S35VN is a martensitic stainless steel designed to offer improved toughness over CPM S30V. Vanadium carbides are classified as the hardest carbides, hence the incorporation of V in the name of the metals. The edge retention is â¦ Composition of S45VNAs the latest evolution of alloy steel, S45NV has increased amounts of chromium to help increase corrosion resistance over the earlier generation of S35VN. Improving all of those properties at the same time is difficult but I’m sure it helped that S30V is produced by powder metallurgy. The steel looks somewhat similar to S35VN but with increased Nb and N, decreased C and V, and a 1.5% cobalt addition. The corrosion resistance of S30V and the similar S35VN have been found to be better than CPM-154, in a range I would call âabove average.â The corrosion resistance has been improved somewhat with the new S45VN, but S30V is good enough for many knives. The higher the chromium content, the less vanadium carbide is formed for a given vanadium content, and more and more chromium carbide is formed.